Reading through the articles in this journal stimulates me to think reflectively on my journey as a learner and an educator, not only on implementation of curriculum integration and Outcomes Based Education (OBE) in my country but also the envisioning of curriculum which is concerned in this unit. I realise that my government seems to try applying several excellent educational philosophies such as curriculum integration, OBE, and curriculum vision which need to be concerned on the level of applications. Through this unit, I hope that I could bring my voices related to the implementation of these ideas in my education system. Furthermore, I found the articles are related each other in terms of exploring learners’ experiences which not only to create the meaningful learning process but also to provoke them as an agent for society. Throughout this curriculum unit, I realise that the curriculum’s role is the bridge to shape the young generations who will have responsibility in the future. Furthermore, I bring the curriculum dynamic as the first reading to compose this journal, which I found as the main idea to envision my curriculum, then vision of curriculum, curriculum integration, and democratic curriculum. The third last articles, I found that having the specific ideas to envision the curriculum such as social-justice, eco-justice, and democracy.
Bringing the ideas of curriculum dynamics by Fleener (1999) which concern on changing the view of curriculum as “thing” to curriculum as “dynamic process” which influence the language games of schooling will be powerful for my curriculum vision. For long time, curriculum as thing influences my view of curriculum as subject matter, lesson plans, and objectives which isolated my learners in the boarder of standardisation. On the other hand, I realise that curriculum as dynamic process will involve the “logics of relationship, system, and meaning” (p.165), which could empower my learners to active in their learning process and their future life. In this article, Fleener reminds me that curriculum as dynamic process doesn’t mean simply change into the postmodern perspective which is process, meaning, value oriented and self organizing, but we have to changing “…the ways of seeing curriculum…[ and] re-examining the teachers, principals, and administrators in schools” (p.174). The ideas become more prevailing when Fleener brings up the Doll’s idea on curriculum matrix which has role as a bridge to create curriculum as dynamic process. In the curriculum matrix, Doll shapes the curriculum with the several aspects which are Rich, Recursive, Relational, and Rigorious. Throughout the idea of richness, I could explore the curriculum into the depth meaning, which not only the meaning of several layers of ideas, but also the relationship between the ideas which giving the overall meaning. Furthermore, the idea of recursive which doesn’t mean the repletion of the ideas in the curriculum, I will help my students to involve the reflective, creative, and evaluative thinking in their learning process (p.168). Therefore, the recursive will influence learning as exploring the pattern not only the accumulation of information. Moreover, meaningful learning experiences could be realised by the concept of relations in the curriculum which involve the interaction of learners’ experiences in the classroom to create the meaning. The aspect of rigor will help my students to look different, creative, and challenging solutions through inquiry process. As a result, each aspect of curriculum matrix is potential for self-organisation, socioautonomy, and self similarity (p.173) which hold up curriculum as process.
Furthermore, Fleener’s idea on curriculum as learning organisation will shapes the dynamic process in my curriculum vision. Seeing curriculum as learning organisation will remind me that curriculum as medium the share the meaning and understanding in the school. As a result, curriculum will help my learners to find the meaning and transform their lives. Her idea on classroom as borderland which allows students to declare their diversity and different perspectives seems difficult for me to apply. But, this powerful idea could give different perspectives for my students and encourage them to think critically on others ideas. Compared to flatland, borderland provokes the curriculum matrix which the dynamic, new patterns, problems, and challenges will occur in the learning process. In conclusion, curriculum dynamic through the curriculum matrix help my students to understand themselves and engage in meaningful learning process. Through this view, I realise that curriculum becomes the very fundamental way to interrelate the school and the improvement of society.
The ideas of visions of curriculum, community, and science by Brickhouse and Kittleson (2006) which concern on employ science not only to understand the natural world but also to understand the cultural values, diversity, social justice and eco-justice remind me on the role of chemistry in the society. The relationship between science and science education, especially chemistry with environmental issues encourage me to relate it with the concepts of community, social justice, and eco-justice (p.191). I found that Brickhouse and Kittleson review three books which help them to envision the science curriculum which hold social justice and environmental sustainability. First, Doll’s and Gough’s idea on the importance of local values and practices to encounter the globalisation suggest “a transitional imaginary” which reject the homogenization of culture which implied by globalisation (p. 194).. In my country, the idea of globalization is very frightening because of the people seems incapable to face the impacts of globalization. Therefore, their vision on liberating the curriculum is interesting to be explored. The second author is Browers who points out education for justice and community. When he criticise the school which separates children from the community and local knowledge, I realise that I never think about it in my teaching process which concerns on teaching the local knowledge. But, I agree that teaching should become responsive with the ecological and local cultures to help students become socially aware, reflective, and transformational (Graham, 2007). However, Brickhouse and Kittleson critise his idea on teaching local knowledge will ignore students’ understanding on broader issues of science which related to communities. Therefore, I found that it will be more powerful to integrate between local and broader knowledge. In addition, Riley-Taylor’s idea on ecology, spirituality, and education which generate the idea of ecospiritual praxis that related to social justice empower me to explore more green chemistry approaches in my teaching practices. However, before I explore the negative effects of misguided science application in the real world, I would engage my students to have experience and become aware of the beautiful of the natural world is the essential step toward ecological responsibility (Graham, 2007). Furthermore, I will extend the idea not only for environmental sustainability, but also for eco-justice, social justice, eco-spiritual praxis and culture sustainability throughout my teaching approaches. This ecospiritual praxis has multilayer perspectives on deep ecology, ecofeminism, and postmodern theories which emphasise the value system, gender neutrality, and dynamic life. Therefore, I found her vision on eco-justice grounded on ecological perspectives. The challenge for me is how I bring education process to sustain the community which involves the human relationship, spirituality and nature.
Furthermore, compared to Browers and Riley-Taylor who strong oppositional on the role of science, I found the authors, Brickhouse and Kittleson concern on how to reshape science and science education to be improved and changed to serve social justice and eco-justice. The interesting idea is revealing science education to support the broad participation of science for sustainability the future (p.201). Science could be envisioned through the national policies which encourage the role of science and technology to promote ecological sustainability (p.203). They give some examples in teaching practices which inspire me to apply those into teaching chemistry. I agree that it is important to build up the schools which could make science accessible for everyone and equip young people to understand and participate in the development of science throughout the science curriculum. Furthermore, according to Donnelly (2004, p.777), there are three approaches to develop science curriculum which could give significant reform in science which are:
1. the attempt to base pupils’ learning of science on their personal interests and material and “cultural” environment
2. the attempt to enable pupils to make use of science, as practice and knowledge, in ways which have a potential vocational relevance
3. there are those more radical reformulations of the aims, and institutional and organizational practices, of science education, which propose its conversion to a species of political activism
These ideas are related to the authors in the ways of engaging students in their learning experiences and stimulate them to active participation in the society (sustainability, eco-justice, social justice, etc.). Moreover, the “outsiders” with their critical education could engage young people to have “strong reflexivity”. In conclusion, it is very powerful idea to envision the science which is “responsible for supporting the interests, goals, and needs of a diverse population” (p.204). Therefore, I as an educator should provide critical education for everyone and teach science and local knowledge which related to the ecological sustainability and science-related communities.
The idea of curriculum integration by Beane (1995) is powerful to apply in my curriculum vision which stimulates me to reflect on my teaching practices. I become realise that the curriculum integration is not simply integrating the several discipline knowledge into one topic or theme. The main idea is how I help my learners to engage their learning experiences to understanding themselves as individual and social agent. Therefore, curriculum integration will help me as en educator to equip my students with the skills of the ways of knowing and understanding which help them to create self and social meaning which is more than correlation between various disciplines. Furthermore, the curriculum integration breaks up the isolation between various disciplines and creates the critical, broad, and holistic perspectives for the students (Ducoffe, Tromley, & Tucker, 2006) which requires high-order thinking for making connection to understand the holistic ideas which helps students to engage in their learning process (Hatch & Smith, 2004).The problem is not in the useful of knowledge but how to help young people to find the self and social meaning by using the knowledge (p.2). Therefore, I should give the integration of learning experiences for the students which concern on the knowledge of the contemporary context of problems, interests, issues, and concerns. Furthermore, I agree that the idea of separate subject approach which collects the limited ideas by ignoring the real life purposes, isolates the young people into the standardised approaches, and serves the high status of knowledge. The implementation of curriculum integration could begin with the identifying the themes which related to the real life. Therefore, I could involve the idea of curriculum integration into my curriculum vision which implies on the new knowledge and experience in the real life to help my learners to understand themselves and the world.
The other idea by Beane (1998) on reclaiming a democratic purpose for education seems difficult to apply in my classroom. But, throughout the reading, I found that this idea could be the other way to help me and my students to be active citizens in the society, becaue teaching must involve an element of trust, and trust demands openness.. Bean also realises that the educators have to struggle under the influence of powerful factors, but he believes that democracy can be lived in the school throughout curriculum which engage into the hearts and mind of young people. According to Longbottom & Butler (1999), democracy provides the best mechanism for promoting rational change in society which allows all citizens to express their humanity by making choices about their own lives and their stand point in influencing the direction of society. Moreover, I found the idea of democracy involves the intelligent collaborative participation in the society to create individuals who are empathy on others’ welfare, diverse group of young people, (2) never insult the intelligence and capacity of young people, (3) threat students with dignity, (4) value of knowledge and experience of young people, (5) engage the important knowledge and organise those into meaningful experiences for young people, (6) not serve exclusive interests, (7) give opportunity to be criticised by young people to construct new meaning, (8) be reasonable and achievable, (9) stimulate young people to imagine the better world and how to make it, (10) serve the best interest of young people and democracy. According to Apple & Bean (1995) as cited in Bencze (2000), citizens in democracies diverse curricula which encourage the individuals to create the “meaning making” which requires them to construct their own knowledge. Refers to this idea, I should give my learners’ right to create their own thoughts and actions through the independent scientific investigations and innovations, such as science project on certain topics which related to their interests. Therefore, this idea could encourage individuals to be active citizens in the society (Kennedy, 2007). In conclusion, even though, it seems to be difficult, but I hope that I could bring the democracy in my teaching and learning to expand the history of democracy in my education system.
Through all the concepts on these articles above enrich the ideas of my curriculum visions. I found all the concepts hold up my curriculum visions. My curriculum visions under the emphatic intelligence zone imply interpersonal relationships, development of self awareness, self development, engagement, and personal experiences. Curriculum as experiences, currere, community, and agenda social reconstruction are the metaphors which I use to envision my utopia curriculum. Moreover, the concept of curriculum integration and curriculum dynamic will help me as educator to engage my students throughout the meaningful learning experiences. These concepts are related to the curriculum as experiences and currere in terms of own experiences, self-reflection, self-understanding, and reconceptualization. I believe that engage my students throughout their own experiences could help them to understand themselves as individual and social agent. I hope that my curriculum vision could shape my students to be active citizens. To be active citizenship, the students should have ability to engage with the social change and active solidarity (Ross, 2007). Therefore, I could apply some teaching strategies such as debate and discussion throughout the controversy issue to engage them with the social problem and encourage them to arguing and thinking critically with different perspectives. I agree that it will be prevailing to teaching science by linking scientific ways of thinking with the advancement of democratic society, rather than simply treating science education as a subject matter which prepare students to have skills to critically analyse and change society (Longbottom & Butler, 1999).Furthermore, the vision process brings the learners to be aware of their role in the society after leaving the school. Therefore, integration the idea of eco-justice, social justice, democracy, community, and agenda for social reconstruction will help them to active participate in the reconstruction of society. Even though, these ideas seem ambiguous, but I believe that throughout my role in the education process, the powerful of these ideas will create the better world for my society.
My Curriculum Visions: Emphatic intelligence zone
(Relationships, self awareness, self development, engagement, and experiences)
· Agenda for social reconstruction
· Dynamic process
· Rich, Recursive, Relational, and Rigorous
· Learning Organizations
· Environmental awareness
· Social Justice
· Self and Social Meaning
· Experiences& knowledge
Furthermore, since two years ago, my government applies the Outcomes Based Education which needs to be improved in application. Even though, teachers are already trained, but they are still confusing when they face the curriculum and national examination which are still standardised. However, since I learnt the OBE at SMEC, I became realise that the philosophy beyond the OBE which is powerful to apply. I also try to examine and reflect on the implementation of OBE in my country. Therefore, this topic is very relevant to my teaching practices. I found that there are three basis of Outcomes Based Education (OBE) which are all students can learn and succeed, success breed success, and schools control the condition of success (Spady, 1991, p.67). Different from traditional and transitional OBE, the transformational OBE is focus on success for all which implies the clarity of focus on outcomes of significance, design from ultimate outcomes, emphasize high expectations for all to succeed, and provide expanded opportunity for learning success (p.70). Since I explore this article, I realise that my education system still imply the traditional OBE. I try to understand the principle of the transformational OBE which will be helpful for me to achieve the vision of my utopia. I realise that transformational OBE will equip the students with knowledge, competence, and orientations for success after leaving the school. Therefore, transformational OBE is future-driven outcomes for the students which giving the schools to restructuring themselves. I also concern on the second article which related to transformational OBE, “Choosing Outcomes of Significance”, Spady (1994) defines the “outcomes are high quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context” (p.18). The demonstration in the transformational OBE requires “the highest degrees of ownerships, integration, synthesis, and functional application… [for] the complexity of real-life performance contexts. These performance roles are the major essential roles of students in the society after leaving the schools. Therefore, I use these life performance roles to envision the exit outcomes for graduates in my university which implies on transformational OBE. Furthermore, on the other article “We Need More Than Educentric Standard”, Spady (1995) criticises the idea of performance standard in the curriculum which use as standards for “good students and good teachers”. Standardisation doesn’t useless, but throughout the transformational OBE, standards are becoming rigorous and complex content for the future challenging and environment. In conclusion, transformational OBE is focus on the success for the students in the school as well as in the community. Therefore, the transformational OBE guide the students to be the competent future citizens.
Bringing the idea of transformational OBE gives the powerful vision for the graduate attributes in my university without ignore the Pancasila as the philosophy of my country. I combine the philosophy of Pancasila, the concept of learning and the idea of the life role performances under the transformational OBE.
1. Belief in the one and only God (Ketuhanan yang Maha Esa)
2. Just and civilized humanity (Kemanusiaan yang Adil dan Beradab)
3. The unity of Indonesia (Persatuan Indonesia)
4. Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives (Kerakyatan yang Dipimpin oleh Hikmat Kebijaksanaan dalam Permusyawaratan/Perwakilan)
5. Social justice for the whole of the people of Indonesia (Keadilan Sosial bagi Seluruh Rakyat Indonesia)
Transformational OBE (Equip the learners to succeed in the life-role performances), to be:
1. Implementers and Performers
2. Problem Finders and Solvers
3. Planners and Designers
4. Creators and Producers
5. Learners and Thinkers
6. Listeners and Communicators
7. Teachers and Mentors
8. Supporters and Contributors
9. Team Members and Partners
10. Leaders and Organizers
Aspects of Learning
These ideas bring me up to envisioning the graduate attributes for my university. The main idea is shaping the students to become the active participants in the society through the learning process in university. The active participants which have several characteristics of graduate attributes:
A. Cognitive (Knowledge) (4,2,3,4,5,8)
1. Life long learners
Graduates utilize life long learning in their live through developing continuously their knowledge to extend their capacity as individual and social members.
2. Creative, critical, and reflective thinkers
Graduates demonstrate their creative, critical, and reflective thinking to analysis the perspectives and overcome the problems.
B. Affective (Value & Spirituality) (1,2,3,4,5,9)
1. Emphatic intelligent members
Graduates demonstrate the self awareness, reflection, engagement, dynamic, enthusiasm, intelligent caring, self development and others in the society.
2. Responsive social contributors
Graduates recognise, understand, responsive to social problems by examining the causes and finding the creative and innovative solutions.
3. Comprehensive spirituality members
Graduates reveal the comprehensive understanding of spiritually throughout the emphatic implementation in society.
4. Receptive diversity participators
Graduates aware and understand of the diversity in the society by active participating to sustain the nation’s unity.
C. Behavioural (Practice) (2,1,2,6,7,10)
1. Professional practitioners
Graduates apply their skills and knowledge and advance their perspectives to carry out the responsibility in their life roles.
2. Competent and emphatic future leaders
Graduates demonstrate the capability as future leaders who are emphatic, initiative, and creative to cooperate and coordinate others.
3. Competent technology implementers
Graduates present the competencies of using and developing the technology to active participates in their role-life performances.
4. Skilled researchers
Graduates demonstrate their knowledge and skills in research throughout the inquiry approaches to participate in the reconstruction of society.
5. Effective communicators
Graduates demonstrate the capability to communicate effectively and bring their voices in the society with emphatic and appropriate language.
In conclusion, the ideas of dynamic process, eco-justice, democracy, and integration curriculum will enrich my utopia curriculum vision. These ideas are not only encourage individuals to equip self-awareness, self-reflection, and self-development but also active participation in their role-life performances for reconstruction the better world for the society. Furthermore, combining those ideas with the transformational OBE, the concepts of learning, and the philosophy of Pancasila provides the ideal graduates attributes in my university which could empower myself to have future visions in my role as an educator.